Asthma is a medical condition of the respiratory system that is manifested through hyperactiveness of the respiratory system resulting in inflammation and obstruction of the airways due to cellular hyperresponsiveness. Both chronic and acute asthma are presented through difficult in breathing, inform of shortened breaths and raised pulse rate.
The pathophysiological mechanisms of asthma include bronchoconstriction and obstruction of the airways. This is due to the effect of the edema that occurs in the airways as a result of a series of cellular inflammatory reactions.The cells that are involved are the lymphocytes, mast cells,eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, resident cells and epithelial cells together with other inflammatory mediators recruited by the body in response to foreign antigen but unfortunately turns into an overly cellular response.
In asthmatic condition, a phenomenon in arterial blood gas pattern is observed, where variations in blood arterial carbon dioxide concentration: PaCO2 and the changes in blood Ph levels are used as an indication of the severity of the asthmatic condition. This is the increase in the PaCO2 and the drop in the Ph levels during an asthma attack. At a certain degree where the lungs cannot exhale any more carbon dioxide from the lungs due to airway obstruction, there is an increase in PaCO2 in the blood and consequently a drop in the blood Ph levels below the standard levels of 7.4, as the asthmatic condition worsens.
Among the factors contributing to both acute and chronic asthma includes, environmental factors such as environmental exposure to allergens and smoke, also areas prone to respiratory infections are contributing factor.Allergens are known to trigger body’s immunity thus bringing about a deployment of the cellular immune mechanism.